RIN2 syndrome

What is RIN2 syndrome?

RIN2 syndrome, formerly known as macrocephaly, alopecia, cutis laxa and scoliosis (MACS) syndrome, is a very rare inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by macrocephaly, sparse scalp hair, soft-redundant and hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. Patients have progressive facial coarsening with downslanted palpebral fissures, upper eyelid fullness/infraorbital folds, thick/everted vermillion, gingival overgrowth and abnormal position of the teeth. Rarer manifestations such as abnormal high-pitched voice, bronchiectasis, hypergonadotropic hypergonadism and brachydactyly (see this term) have also been reported.

Other condition names

  • MACS syndrome
  • Macrocephaly-alopecia-cutis laxa-scoliosis syndrome
  • RIN2 deficiency
  • Tall forehead-sparse hair-skin hyperextensibility-scoliosis syndrome

Inheritance type

Autosomal recessive


  • Worldwide: <1 in 1,000 000

Age of Onset

  • Infancy
  • Neonatal
Orphadata: Free access data from Orphanet. © INSERM 1999. Available on "https://www.orphadata.com". Data version 1.3.16 / 4.1.7.